What is Dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a neurobiological condition that causes difficulties in several areas of learning. It commonly affects reading, writing, and spelling, but can also affect math skills. This condition can be hard to define and is not recognized in Tennessee as a learning disability at this time. A bill is currently under consideration to change this in the state legislature and, if passed, will benefit many children.
Other areas of learning overlap with dyslexia and cause difficulty in a student’s performance in school. Students and adults who struggle with dyslexia learn and process information differently than others. But they are still able to learn and be very successful in their academics and life!
"Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge."
There are three main types of dyslexia, each with its own symptoms and causes.
Dyseidetic Dyslexia: A type of dyslexia associated with brain functions located in the angular gyrus of the left parietal lobe of the brain. A person with this type of dyslexia will have poor sight-word recognition, contributing to a slow, laborious reading experience. Irregular words are both sounded out phonetically (laugh=log) and spelled phonetically (ready=rede). As a result of their condition, dyseidetic dyslexics often are more advanced in reading than in spelling.
Dysphonetic Dyslexia: A type of dyslexia associated with functions located in Wernicke's Area of the left temporal lobe. A person with this type of dyslexia relies on sight recognition to read, being unable to sound out unknown words. During reading, words are either known or not known, and are often substituted or skipped when trouble arises. Words are learned by rote memorization, and cannot be spelled by their sound. Ear infections can cause some problems.
Dysphoneidetic Dyslexia: A type of dyslexia associated with a combination deficits in brain function in the angular gyrus and Wernicke's Area. A person this type of dyslexia will often have weak visual-motor skills, and is often the most difficult to treat.